History of Cloud Computing

History of Cloud Computing

  • Before emerging the cloud computing, there was Client/Server computing which is basically a centralized storage in which all the software applications, all the data and all the controls are resided on the server side.
  • If a single user wants to access specific data or run a program, he/she need to connect to the server and then gain appropriate access, and then he/she can do his/her business.
  • Then after, distributed computing came into picture, where all the computers are networked together and share their resources when needed.
  • On the basis of above computing, there was emerged of cloud computing concepts that later implemented.
  • Cloud Computing is not a latest technology. Cloud computing has evolved through a number of phases which includes Grid Computing, Utility Computing, Application Service and Software as a Service etc.
    But the overall concept of delivering Computing resource through a global network is started in the sixties ().
  • By 2020 The Cloud co1960mputing market is forecast to exceed $241 Billion. But how did we get here and where did all this started is the history of Cloud computing
  • At around in 1961, John Mac-Charty suggested in a speech at MIT that computing can be sold like a utility, just like a water or electricity. It was a brilliant idea, but like all brilliant ideas, it was ahead if its time, as for the next few decades, despite interest in the model, the technology simply was not ready for it.
  • It was a gradual evolution that started in the 1950s with mainframe computing.
  • Multiple users were capable of accessing a central computer through dumb terminals, whose only function was to provide access to the mainframe. Because of the costs to buy and maintain mainframe computers, it was not practical for an organization to buy and maintain one for every employee. Nor did the typical user need the large (at the time) storage capacity and processing power that a mainframe provided. Providing shared access to a single resource was the solution that made economical sense for this sophisticated piece of technology.
  • After some time, around 1970, the concept of virtual machines (VMs) was created.
  • Using virtualization software like VMware, it became possible to execute one or more operating systems simultaneously in an isolated environment. Complete computers (virtual) could be executed inside one physical hardware which in turn can run a completely different operating system.
  • The VM operating system took the 1950s’ shared access mainframe to the next level, permitting multiple distinct computing environments to reside on one physical environment. Virtualization came to drive the technology, and was an important catalyst in the communication and information evolution.
  • In the 1990s, telecommunications companies started offering virtualized private network connections.
  • Historically, telecommunications companies only offered single dedicated point–to-point data connections. The newly offered virtualized private network connections had the same service quality as their dedicated services at a reduced cost. Instead of building out physical infrastructure to allow for more users to have their own connections, telecommunications companies were now able to provide users with shared access to the same physical infrastructure.
  • The following list briefly explains the evolution of cloud computing:
  • Grid computing: Solving large problems with parallel computing
    Utility computing: Offering computing resources as a metered service
    SaaS: Network-based subscriptions to applications
    Cloud computing: Anytime, anywhere access to IT resources delivered dynamically as a service.
    The actual history of Cloud computing is not that old, the first business and consumer Cloud Computing services website (Salesforce.com and Google) were launched in 1999. Cloud computing is tied directly to the development of the Internet and Business technology since Cloud computing is the solution to the problem of how the Internet can help improve Business Technology.
  • Cloud computing is one the most innovative technology of our time. Following is a brief history of Cloud computing.

But of course time has passed and the technology caught that idea and after few years we mentioned that:

In 1999, Salesforce.com started delivering of applications to users using a simple website. The applications were delivered to enterprises over the Internet, and this way the dream of computing sold as utility were true.

In 2002, Amazon started Amazon Web Services, providing services like storage, computation and even human intelligence. However, only starting with the launch of the Elastic Compute Cloud in 2006 a truly commercial service open to everybody existed.

In 2009, Google Apps also started to provide cloud computing enterprise applications.

Of course, all the big players are present in the cloud computing evolution, some were earlier, and some were later. 

In 2009, Microsoft launched Windows Azure, and companies like Oracle and HP have all joined the game. This proves that today, cloud computing has become mainstream.

History & Evolution of Cloud Computing:

EARLY 1960S:-

The computer scientist John McCarthy, come up with concept of timesharing, and enabling Organization to simultaneously use an expensive mainframe. This computing is described as a significant contribution to the development of the Internet, and a pioneer of Cloud computing.

IN 1969:-

The idea of an “Intergalactic Computer Network” or “Galactic Network” (a computer networking concept similar to today’s Internet) was introduced by J.C.R. Licklider, who was responsible for enabling the development of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). His vision was for everyone on the globe to be interconnected and being able to access programs and data at any site, from anywhere.

IN 1970:-

Using virtualization software like VMware. It becomes possible to run more than one Operating System simultaneously in an isolated environment. It was possible to run a completely different Computer (virtual machine) inside a different Operating System.

IN 1997:-The first known definition of the term “Cloud Computing” seems to be by Prof. Ramnath Chellappa in Dallas in 1997 – “A computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone.”


The arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999 pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via simple website. The services firm covered the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the Internet.

IN 2003:-

The first public release of Xen, which creates a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) also known as a hypervisor, a software system that, allows the execution of multiple virtual guest operating systems simultaneously on a single machine.

IN 2006:-

In 2006, Amazon expanded its cloud services. First was its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2), which allowed people to access computers and run their own applications on them, all on the cloud. Then they brought out Simple Storage Service (S3). This introduced the pay-as-you-go model to both users and the industry as a whole, and it has basically become standard practice now.

IN 2013:-

The Worldwide Public Cloud Services Market totalled £78bn, up 18.5 per cent on 2012, with IaaS (infrastructure-as-a-service) the fastest growing market service.

IN 2014:-

In 2014, global business spending for infrastructure and services related to the cloud will reach an estimated £103.8bn.

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